(95) 大柱霉草
Sciaphila megastyla
Fukuyama & Suzuki
霉草科(Triuridaceae)

英文名 (English name): Large Stylus Sciaphila

中國境內現狀:極危(CR)
Status in China: Critically Endangered (CR)

形態特徵:腐生草本。莖纖細,單一,高達6厘米。葉互生,退化成鱗片狀。花單性,雌雄同株;花被片6,鑽形;雄花具3-2枚雄蕊;雌花子房多數,具乳突,花柱棒狀,在靠近子房的基部或基部以上伸出。果開裂,成熟心皮向基部變狹,上部多疣。

地理分布:本種模式標本由N. Fukuyama 和T. Suzuki於1936年採自台灣,此後再無人報導過該植物,直至1999年在香港大帽山和馬鞍山再次採得。

生境與生態:局限生長於林下的枯枝落葉層上。花、果期:8月。

本種為稀有植物,對瞭解腐生植物的生物學特徵、代謝方式、植物區系等都具有研究價值。其種群小,但在香港的生長地點在郊野公園內,生境已受到保護。

Description: Saprophytic monoecious herbs. Stem slender, simple, to 6 cm high, reddish. Leaves alternate, reduced into scales. Flowers unisexual; tepals 6, subulate; male flowers with 2 or 3 stamens; female flowers with numerous papillate carpels; style clavellate, basal or nearly so. Follicle dehiscent; mature carpels tappering to the base, apex papillate.

Distribution: Tai Mo Shan and Ma On Shan. This species was first collected and described by N. Fukuyama & T. Suzuki in 1936 from Taiwan. Since then, it has not been found again till recently in Tai Mo Shan and Ma On Shan of Hong Kong.

Habitat and Ecology: On litters under forests. Flowering and fruiting: Aug.

Its rarity makes this species of significance in studies of the biology, metabolism and floristic characteristics of saprophytes. In Hong Kong, the species exists in Country Parks and thus protection of its habitats is secured.

參考文獻 (References):
Fukuyama & Suzuki, 1936: Journal of Japanese Botany 12: 410. Plate 1: 1, 2.
Giesen, H., 1938: Engl's Pflan.-reich. 104 (IV. 18): 69.
周淩雲等,1992:中國植物誌 8:191. 科學出版社,北京。
吳德鄰等,2000:熱帶亞熱帶植物學報 8(2):157。