(11) 油杉
Keteleeria fortunei
(Murr.) Carr.
松科(Pinaceae)

英文名 (English name): Fortune's Keteleeria

中國境內現狀:易危 (VU)。已載入《中國植物紅皮書》和《 廣東省珍稀瀕危植物圖譜》。
Status in China: Vulnerable (VU). Rrecorded in China Plant Red Data Book and Illustation of Rare & Endangered plant in Guangdong Province.

形態特徵:喬木,高達30米;樹皮粗糙,暗灰色,縱裂;枝條開展,初時密被毛,桔紅色或淡粉紅色,二、三年生枝淡黃灰色或淡黃褐色。葉線形,長1.2-3厘米,寬2-4毫米,先端圓或鈍,基部漸窄,上面綠色,具光澤,無氣孔線,下面淡綠色,沿中脈每邊有氣孔線12-17條。毬果圓柱形,熟時淡褐色或淡栗色,長6-18厘米,直徑5-6.5厘米; 種鱗通常寬圓形,頂端近圓形,間或中央微凹,邊緣向內反曲,鱗背露出部分無毛;種子矩圓形,長1-1.3厘米,一側有黃棕色翅。

地理分布:僅見於鶴咀、赤柱。福建南部、廣東、廣西、貴州、湖南南部、江西西南部、雲南西南部、浙江西南部及越南北部。

生境與生態:生於海邊丘陵。花期:3-4月;種子10月成熟。

油杉特產我國及越南北部,是古老的孑遺種類,對研究我國南方的植物區系有一定學術價值。木材堅實耐用,供建築、傢具等用,又可作園林綠化樹種。本種受《林務規例》(香港法例第96章附例)保護。已開展採種、育苗,進行人工繁殖,並成功地在郊野公園建立種群。城門標本林有栽培。

Description: Trees to 30 m tall; bark dark gray, rough, longitudinally fissured; branchlets patent, densely hairy and orange-red or reddish when young, turning yellowish gray or yellowish brown in 2nd or 3rd year. Leaves linear, 1.2-3 cm long,2-4 mm wide, apex obtuse, base gradually attenuate, upper surface green and glossy, without stomatal lines, lower surface pale green, with 12-17 stomatal lines on each side of midrib. Seed cones cylindric, 6-18 cm long, 5-6.5 cm in diam. Seed scales usually compressed orbicular, apex convex, rounded or rounded-truncate, occasionally emarginate, exposed part glabrous abaxially, margin entire and incurved. Seeds oblong, 1-1.3 cm, with yellowish brown wing on one side.
  

Distribution: Restricted to Cape D'Aguilar, Stanley Peninsula. S Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, S Hunan, SW Jiangxi, SE Yunnan, SW Zhejiang; N Vietnam.
  

Habitat and ecology: On hills near seashore. Pollination: Mar.-Apr.; seed maturity: Oct.
  

As a relic species endemic to China and N Vietnam, it is of great scientific importance for floristic studies of south China. The plant is very suitable for cultivation as an ornamental and its wood can be used for construction and furniture. The species is protected under the Forestry Regulations (Cap. 96 sub. leg.). Seeds of this species have been collected in the field; seedlings have been raised in nursery and successfully planted in Country Parks. Living specimens are displayed in the Shing Mun Arboretum.

參考文獻 (References):
傅立國, 1992: 中國植物紅皮書 1:72-73。科學出版社﹐北京。
劉玉壺,吳容芬,2000:廣東植物誌 4:12。廣東科技出版社﹐廣州。
Fu, L. K. et al,1999: Flora of China 4: 42-43. Science Press, Beijing & Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis.