10) 穗花杉
Amentotaxus argotaenia (
Hance) Pilger
三尖杉科 (Cephalotaxaceae)

中國境內現狀:易危 (VU)。已載入《中國植物紅皮書》和《 廣東省珍稀瀕危植物圖譜》。
Status in China: Vulnerable (VU). Recorded in China Plant Red Data Book and Illustrations of Rare and Endangered plant in Guangdong Province.

形態特徵: 灌木或小喬木,高達7米。小枝圓形或近方形,幼時綠色,後變為綠黃色、黃色或淡黃紅色。葉基部扭轉,排成兩列,線狀披針形,直或微彎呈鐮狀,長3-11厘米,寬6-11毫米,先端尖或鈍,基部漸窄,邊緣微向下卷,下面有白色氣孔帶2條;葉柄極短或近無柄。雄球花1-3(多為2)穗,長5-6.5厘米,雄蕊有2-5(多為3個)花藥。雌球花生於葉腋或苞腋,有6-10對交互對生的苞片,胚珠單生。假種皮鮮紅色,種子橢圓球形,成熟時紅色,長2-2.5厘米,直徑約1.3厘米,頂端有小尖頭露出。

地理分布: 馬鞍山、大帽山、柏架山、大東山、鳳凰山、西貢。福建、廣東、廣西、貴州、湖北西部、湖南、江蘇、江西、四川、台灣、甘肅南部、西藏、浙江及越南北部。

生境與生態:散生於海拔300-1100米的山谷和溪邊林中。花期:4月;果期:10月。
  

穗花杉木材材質細密,可供雕刻用;樹型秀麗,種子成熟時假種皮紅色,下垂,極美麗,可作庭園樹種。此外, 本種僅星散分布於中國和越南北部,對於研究中國植物區系有一定的科學意義。本種生長緩慢,種子有休眠期,易遭鼠害,天然更新能力弱。在香港,本種全部生長地點均在郊野公園內受到保護。本種受《林務規例》(香港法例第96章附例)保護。城門標本林有栽培。

Description: Shrubs or small trees to 7 m high. Branchlets green in the current year, the older ones greenish yellow to yellowish red. Leaves twisted at base, arranged in 2 rows, linear or linear-lanceolate, straight or slightly falcate , 3-11 cm long, 6-11 mm wide, apex acute or obtuse, base cuneate or broadly cuneate, margin slightly revolute, with 2 white stomatal bands on abaxial surface; petiole very short or subsessile. Pollen-cone 5-6.5 cm long, 1-3 (usually 2) borne together, each stamens with 2-5 (usually 3) anthers; seed cones in leaf axil or bract axil, bracts ca. 6-10 pairs, opposite, ovule solitary. Arils bright red when ripe; seed red when matured, ellipsoid, 2-2.5 cm long, 1.3 cm wide, with small, mucronulate apex.

Distribution: Ma On Shan, Tai Mo Shan, Mount Parker, Sunset Peak, Lantau Peak, Sai Kung. Fujian, S Gansu, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, W Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, NW Jiangxi, C and SE Sichuan, Taiwan, SE Xizang, S Zhejiang; N Vietnam.

Habitat and ecology: In forests of valleys or by streams, alt. 300-1100 m; pollination: Apr.; seed maturity: Oct.
  

Its fine-grained wood is used for carving. The beautiful tree-shape and dark green leaves make it an attractive ornamental tree. Phytogeographically, the plant is rather rare and restricted to China and northern Vietnam and is thus of special botanical interest. The plant grows very slowly. Natural reproduction takes place by seeds, which have a dormant period and are easily damaged by insects and rodents. In Hong Kong, all the localities of its occurrence are within Country Parks under protection. This species is also protected by the Forestry Regulations (Cap. 96 sub. leg.). A living specimen is displayed in the Shing Mun Arboretum.

參考文獻 (References):
傅立國, 1992: 中國植物紅皮書 1:134-135。科學出版社,北京。
Fu, L. K. et al., 1999: Flora of China 4: 93. Science Press, Beijing & Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis.